These are the sources for the fifth episode in our series on UK drug use in the 1950s and 60s: The Addict and Addiction from Victorian Doctors to Eugenicist Psychiatrists

An annotated script for the episode can be found here.

Newspaper Articles

‘Who Should Suffer?’, Daily Express, 7 June 1955, p. 4.

‘Cassandra Says: The Way Out’, The Daily Mirror, 29 November 1955. P. 6.

Journal Articles and Chapters

Appleman, L. ‘Opioids, Addiction Treatment, and the Long Tail of Eugenics’, Ohio State Law Journal, 2019, vol 80, no. 4, pp. 841-857.

Davidson, R., ‘Psychiatry and Homosexuality in Mid-Twentieth-Century Edinburgh: The View from Jordanburn Nerve Hospital’, History of Psychiatry, 2009, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 403-424.

Freedman, E., ‘”Uncontrolled desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, Journal of American History, 1987, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 83-106.

Garton, S., ‘Criminal Minds: Psychiatry, Psychopathology, and the Government of Criminality’, in Paul Knepper and Anja Johansen (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice, (Ebook: Oxford University Press, 2016), pp 396-415.

Glover, E., ‘On the Aetiology of Drug-Addiction’, The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 1932, vol. 13, pp. 298-328.

Hobson, J., ‘The Proposed Legislation Banning the Legal Production of Heroin in Great Britain’, British Journal of Addiction,Vol.53, No. 1, pp. 48-50.

Pilgrim, D., ‘The Eugenic Legacy in Psychology and Psychiatry’, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 2008, vol. 54, no. 3, pp 272-284.

Seddon, T., ‘Women, Harm Reduction and History: Gender Perspectives on the Emergence of the ‘British System’ of Drug Control’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2008, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 99-105.

Sedgwick, E., ‘Epidemics of the Will’, in Tendencies, (Eve Sedgwick ed.), (London: Routledge, 2005), pp. 129-140.

Smart, C., ‘Social Policy and Drug Addiction: A Critical Study of Policy Development’, British Journal of Addiction, 1984, no. 4, vol. 79, pp. 31-39.

Spensky, M., ‘Producers of Legitimacy: Homes for unmarried mothers in the 1950s’, in Carol Smart (ed.), Regulating Womanhood,(e-book: Routledge, 2002), pp. 100-118.

Stanford Read, C., ‘Homosexuality’, Journal of Mental Science, 1921, vol. 67, no. 276, pp. 8-12.

Stungo, E., ‘The Banning of Heroin’, BJA, 1956, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 66-67.

Walmsley, J., ‘Women and the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913: Citizenship, Sexuality and Regulation’, British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2000, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 65-70.


Berridge, V., Opium and the People: Opiate Use in Nineteenth Century England, (London: Free Association Books, 1999).

Brown, E. and Barganier, G., Race and Crime: Geographies of Injustice, (Ebook: University of California Press, 2018).

Courtwright, D., Dark Paradise: Opiate Addiction in America before 1940, (London: Harvard University Press, 2001).

Davenport-Hines, R., The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Social History of Drugs, (London: Phoenix Press, 2001).

Hallam, C., White Drug Cultures and Regulations in London, 1916-1960, (ebook: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018).

Henderson, D and Gillespie, R. D., A Text-Book of Psychiatry: For Students and Practitioners, (London: Oxford University Press, 1936).

Henderson, D and Batchelor, R., A Text-Book of Psychiatry: For Students and Practitioners, (London: Oxford University Press, 1956).

Foucault, M., The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978).

Kohn, M. Dope Girls: The Birth of the British Drug Underground, (London: Granta Publications, 2001).

Overy, R., The Morbid Age Britain and the Crisis of Civilisation, (London: Allen Lane, 2009).

Plant, S., Writing On Drugs, (London: Faber and Faber, 1999).

Scull, A., Madness in Civilisation: A Cultural History of Insanity from the Bible to Freud, from the Madhouse to Modern Medicine, (London: Thames and Hudson, 2020).

Thomson, M., The Problem of Mental Deficiency: Eugenics, Democracy, and Social Policy in Britain, c. 1870-1959, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Weeks, J., Sex, Politics and Society: The Regulation of Sexuality Since 1800, (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018).

Ziegler, S., Inventing Addiction: Drugs, Race, and Sexuality Nineteenth-Century British and American Literature, (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008).



Kokomo Arnold, Sissy Man Blues, 1935.

London Symphony Orchestra, Beethoven’s 5th Symphony, 1913.

Virginia Liston, I’m Gonna Get Me a Man That’s All, 1926.

Kansas Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie, When the Levee Breaks, 1929.